Good Governance

Etymologically good is good and governance is governance, so good governance means good governance. Good governance is a way or a way to regulate the economic, social resources to establish or expand community (Risman, 2003).
Government or Government in English is defined as: the authoritative direction and administration of the affairs of men / women in the nation, state, sity, etc. Or in Indonesian means: briefing and administrative authority over the activities of people in a country, state, or city and so on (Sedermanyanti, 2009: 272).
While the term governance or in English. Governance is the act, fact, manner of governing, means: action, facts, patterns, and activity or government organization. Thus governance is an activity (process), as proposed by Kooiman (in Sedermanyanti, 2009) that governance is more of a series of processes of social interaction politics between administration with the community in various fields related to public interests and government intervention on these interests. “
The term governance does not only mean the government as an activity, but also implies the maintenance, management, direction, development and implementation could also mean government. It is therefore not surprising that there are terms of public governance, private governance, and others. Governance as a translation of the government, then developed and became popular as the government, while the so-called best practices of good governance (good governance) (Sedermanyanti, 2009).
According Rochman (in Widodo, 2001) concept of governance involves not just governments and the state, but also the role of various actors outside the government and the state, so that the parties involved are also very extensive. Governance is the mechanism of resource management involving the economic and social influence of the state sector and non-government sector in a collective activity.
While the Institute of Public Administration (2000) defines governance as the process of implementation of state power in implementing the provision of public goods and services. Further confirmed that when viewed in terms of functional aspects, governance can be reviewed on whether the government has to function effectively and efficiently in order to achieve the objectives that have been outlined or otherwise.
Good governance is a way or ways to organize and manage the economic, social resources to establish or develop a community that involves the influence of the state sector and non-government sector in a collective activity.
2.2.1 Good Governance as Reform Agenda
The spirit of political reform which began rolling in Indonesia since 1997 is the reversal of the characteristics of a political order that has been patterned for decades. Centralism governance wants to be reversed into a decentralized structure, and authoritarianism want reversed into a democratic system of government. Kesemenamenaan ruling regime wants to be replaced with pro regime against the people. Although Desire to make changes in this direction has been widespread, change itself can not walk by itself. Such changes can only be understood as the result of push and pull between the main political actors. It is very obvious that we understand the reform process of transition towards democratic frameworks.
This reform can not be programmed as a technocratic government. The problem is, in many respects, however, lies with the government itself. At the formal level berubahan has begun to spread, but at the level of substantive changes are still not significant. The extent of the tug explains why that happens is half-hearted reforms.
Terlembaganya a dream for good governance (local good governance) to the fore along with the abundance of lawsuits against governmental administration centralized and authoritarian leadership is practiced during the New Order. The size of today’s popular to see whether or not the government administration are formulated based on the ideals of autonomy and democracy.
Jargon good governance was only recently gained popularity, but that does not mean that during the New Order did not have the concept of good governance. The question, is what time it is understood as good governance is now regarded as obsolete patterns (Santoso, 2000).
In short, political reform at the local level involves important processes that are not easily seen, that did reinterpretation of the concept of governance. In relation to this, there are some important things that need to be noted.
1. First, the concept of governance has to be build in the minds and the rules of governance. Nevertheless, it does not mean that there are concepts that can be run properly. Problems of governance in the New Order era, basically not only rooted in the concept of quality alone, but also on the inability to realize these concepts.
2. Second, the meaning of good governance while the old version had much to lose popularity, meaning the concept of good governance in the new version is still confusing. Bias meaning of the concept of good governance is becoming difficult circumvented when the concept of ‘good governance’ itself actually, practically, acted as a stigma in de-legitimasikan centralism and authoritarianism institutionalized in the New Order era. Stigmatic role actually the concept of good governance can not be separated from the very swift currents perwacanaan within the framework of neo-liberal thinking, which basically tigak too agree with the central role of the state.
3. Third, the meaning of the concept of good governance is currently happening in an atmosphere where the hegemonic discourse rooted in liberalism looks very thick. Liberalism understood as a battering ram door authoritarianism, but there is still a big question whether it would be institutionalized. In an atmosphere where the hegemony of liberal ideology in the reform era is very strong, the measure of good and bad governance can shift from autonomy and democracy, being liberal or not. Good governance-style liberal pattern may be instituted if the public and officials alike liberating themselves wholeheartedly. The tendency is sabotage against liberalism in the sense that people want enaknya have freedom, but do not want to bear persyarakat-requirement for the establishment of the liberal system. For example, the widespread demonstrations are a sign of a good use of liberal political climate, but respect for the rights of others are not protected when doing so.
2.2.2 Background The emergence of Good Governance
Three things the background for the emergence of good governance, namely: (Sedarmayanti, 2009)
1. Emerging phenomenon called Samuel P. Huntington as a wave of global democratization. This wave first appeared in South Korea and in several Latin American countries that immerses bureaucratic authoritarian politics in the decade of the 1980s and the subsequent sweep of socialism in Europe in the early decades of the 1990s.
2. The occurrence of the systematic destruction of a variety of institutional basis for the management of the distribution of economic resources among the majority of the third world. Business and political institutions are supposed to have different management principles have been turned into allies and doubled the growth of cronyism. Transparency, public accountability and allocation of economic resources fail to thrive in the business world.
3. The accumulation of failures initiated structural adjustment programs of the IMF and the World Bank. The program has and adheres to the basic assumption that the state is the only institution of inhibiting the process of economic globalization.
2.2.3 Characteristics of Good Governance
According Sedarmayanti (2009) from the aspect of government, good governance can be seen through aspects:
1. The law / policy, aimed at the protection of freedom of social, political and economic.
2. Competence administration and transparency. The ability to plan and implement efficiently, the ability to simplify the organization, discipline and the creation of administrative models, the disclosure of information.
3. Decentralization. Regional decentralization and deconcentration in the department.
4. The creation of a competitive market. Completion of the market mechanism, improving the role of small businesses and other segments of the private sector, deregulation, and the government’s ability to manage macro-economic policy.
The definition of good governance as synergy and constructive relationship between the state, private sector and society. The characteristics of good governance (UNDP within the LAN and the CPC and Development 2000) are:
1. Participation. Every citizen has a voice in decision-making, either directly mapun through intermediary institutions that represent the interests of legitimacy. Such participation is built on freedom of association and speech and berpartsipasi constructively. This participation can be seen from the actions partake of the level of staff to the competent authorities in the planning, implementation, monitoring activities and the right delivery of an opinion in any process of policy formulation and regulation, the process of formulating development strategies, program development, budgeting, procurement, and monitoring.
2. Rule of law. The legal framework must be implemented fairly and indiscriminately, particularly to human rights law. Rule of law is seen from the right and the authority that supports the establishment of the rule of law by conducting education and socialization regulations and legislation in force, thus decreasing corruption and lawlessness, rising (speed and certainty) the law enforcement process, the applicable norms in society at law enforcer.
3. Transparency. Transparency is built on the basis of free flow of information. Processes, institutions and information are directly received by those in need. The information must be understandable and can be monitored. Transparency is seen from providing complete information about the policies and services provided to the community, utilizing various channels of communication through brochures, leaflets, pengumuan in newspapers, radio, and telivisi locally, thereby increasing awareness and knowledge society to governance, and reduced violation of rules legislation.
4. Responsiveness. Institutions or processes should try to serve all stakeholders. Responsiveness is seen of establishing communication channels to accommodate the aspirations of the community through public forums, talk shows hotline services, and make a complaint procedure, thus increasing public confidence in government, growing public awareness, increasing the number of people who participate in regional development and a reduction in the number of complaints.
5. Equity. All citizens, have the opportunity to improve or maintain their well being. Equity is seen from the right and authority equal treatment regardless of any in providing services, thus creating mutual trust between the government, the public through the provision of information and ensure ease in obtaining accurate information and adequate.
6. Effectiveness and efficiency. Processes and institutions produce in accordance with what has been outlined using available resources as possible. Effectiveness and efficiency seen from ensuring the public service by using the available resources optimally, responsible, satisfaction of society in service, and supervision of rational and transparent, so that increase wellbeing and added value of the community, reduced aberration expenditures, reduced operating costs service.
7. Accountability. The decision-makers in government, the private sector and the community are responsible to the public and institutions of stakeholders. Accountability depends on the organization and the nature of the decisions made, whether the decision is internal or external to the interests of the organization. Accountability is seen from the realization of the condition of all policies at all levels can be justified and in accordance with established procedures, so expect increased satisfaction and public confidence in the government, growing public awareness, and community interests.
8. Strategic vision. Leaders and the public should have the perspective of good governance and human development are broad and far ahead in line with what is required for such development. Strategic vision is seen from the existence of a clear vision and strategy with the corresponding legal force and the support of all levels of employees of the Finance Department Kepahiang District Council Secretariat, so that compatibility between planning and budgeting in order to participate in regional development.
Meanwhile, according to Sedarmayanti (2009) The main elements of good governance principles namely:
1. Accountability (accountability) politics, consisting of:
a. Political accountability, ie the replacement mechanism for officials or businessmen regularly, there is no attempt to build monoloyalitas systematically, and the definition and handling of clear violations powers under the framework of law enforcement
b. Public accountability, namely the existence of restrictions and a clear assignment of accountability. Accountability refers to the development of a sense of public responsibility for ken decision makers in government, the private sector and civil society organizations as well as to the owner (stakeholders). Specialized in bureaucracy, accountability is an effort to create a system for monitoring and controlling the quality of performance, inefficiency and destruction of resources, and transparency ma, finance, procurement, accounting, and of pooling of resources.
2. Transparency (openness) can be seen three aspects:
a. Policy to be open to scrutiny
b. Access to information so that people can reach every aspect of government policy
c. Application of the principle of checks and balances between the executive and legislative). The purpose of transparency build mutual trust between the government and the public in which the government must provide accurate information to the public in need. Especially reliable information related to legal issues, regulations, and the results achieved in the governance process; a mechanism that allows the public to access the relevant information; the rules governing local government obligation to provide information to the public; and foster a culture in society to scrutinize the policies that produced the local government.
3. Participation (involving the public, especially their aspirations)
In the formulation of a plan or policy decisions made by the government, also be seen in public involvement in the implementation of government policies and plans, including monitoring and evaluation. Involvement is not in principle terwakilnya aspirations of the people through representatives in Parliament, but direct involvement. Participation in the sense of encouraging all citizens to use their right to convey directly or indirectly, proposals and opinions in the decision making process. Especially given the freedom of the people to assemble, organize, and participate actively in determining the future.
4. Rule of Law Officers Bureaucracy
Means that there is clarity and predictability of the bureaucracy to the private sector; and in terms of civil society means that there is the necessary legal framework to guarantee the rights of citizens in enforcing government accountability. Concept requirements of other legislation:
a. The rule of law: every action of the state must be based on law and not based on unilateral action by the powers possessed.
b. Legal certainty: beside closely related to the rule of law also requires the assurance that the problem is set in a clear, firm and not duplicative, and contrary to other legislation.
c. Responsive law: the law must be able to absorb the aspirations of the public at large and capable mengakomudasi needs of the community and not made for the benefit of elites.
d. Law enforcement is consistent and non-discriminatory: the effort that requires the sanction, running mechanism of sanctions, as well as human resources / law enforcement who have integrity.
e. Judicial independence: the effectiveness of embedding the principles of justice as an essential requirement embodiment of the rule of law.
Further according Sedarmayanti (2009) from the aspect of government, good governance can be seen through aspects:
1) Legal / policy, aimed at the protection of freedom of social, political and economic.
2) Competence administration and transparency. The ability to plan and implement efficiently, the ability to simplify the organization, discipline and the creation of administrative models, the disclosure of information.
3) Decentralization. Regional decentralization and deconcentration in the department.
4) The creation of a competitive market. Completion of the market mechanism, improving the role of small businesses and other segments of the private sector, deregulation, and the government’s ability to manage macro-economic policy.

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